Airtable requires an URL as part of the attachment, that is publicly accessible for the attachment to work. What you can do is upload the retrieved image data to Google Drive and then upload the resultant URL to the Airtable attachment.
I don’t have access to Box.com so not sure whether it is possible but from the API document it seems like you generate a Download URL.
As I mentioned previously, for the attachment to work, The URL you are passing to Airtable should be a file location link and accessible to download. I think the Download URL for box.com should do the trick.